Friday, May 15, 2020
Gallium is a bright blue-silver metal with a melting point low enough you can melt a chunk in your hand. Here are interesting facts about this element. GalliumÃ Basic Facts Atomic Number: 31 Symbol: Ga Atomic Weight: 69.732 Discovery: Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran 1875 (France) Electron Configuration: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p1 Word Origin: Latin Gallia, France and gallus, a Latin translation of Lecoq, a cock (name of its discoverer was Lecoq de Boisbaudran) Properties: Gallium has a melting point of 29.78Ã °C, boiling point of 2403Ã °C, specific gravity of 5.904 (29.6Ã °C), specific gravity of 6.095 (29.8Ã °C, liguid), with a valence of 2 or 3. Gallium has one of the longest liquid temperature ranges of any metal, with a low vapor pressure even at high temperatures. The element has a strong tendency to supercool below its freezing point. Seeding is sometimes necessary to initiate solidification. Pure gallium metal has a silvery appearance. It exhibits a conchoidal fracture that it similar to a glass fracture in appearance. Gallium expands 3.1% on solidifying, so it should not be stored in a metal or glass container that can break upon its solidification. Gallium wets glass and porcelain, forming a brilliant mirror finish on glass. Highly pure gallium is only slowly attacked by mineral acids. Gallium is associated with a relatively low toxicity, but should be handled with care until more health data has been accumulated. Uses: Since it is a liquid near room temperature, gallium is used for high-temperature thermometers. Gallium is used to dope semiconductors and for producing solid-state devices. Gallium arsenide is used to convert electricity into coherent light. Magnesium gallate with divalent impurities (e.g., Mn2) is used to make commercial ultraviolet-activated powder phosphors. Sources: Gallium may be found as a trace element in sphalerite, diaspore, bauxite, coal, and germanite. Flue dusts from burning coal may contain as much as 1.5% gallium. The free metal may be obtained by electrolysis of its hydroxide in a KOH solution. Element Classification:Basic Metal Gallium Physical Data Density (g/cc): 5.91 Melting Point (K): 302.93 Boiling Point (K): 2676 Appearance: soft, blue-white metal Isotopes: There are 27 known isotopes of gallium ranging from Ga-60 to Ga-86. There are two stable isotopes: Ga-69 (60.108% abundance) and Ga-71 (39.892% abundance). Atomic Radius (pm): 141 Atomic Volume (cc/mol): 11.8 Covalent Radius (pm): 126 Ionic Radius: 62 (3e) 81 (1e) Specific Heat (20Ã °C J/g mol): 0.372 Fusion Heat (kJ/mol): 5.59 Evaporation Heat (kJ/mol): 270.3 Debye Temperature (K): 240.00 Pauling Negativity Number: 1.81 First Ionizing Energy (kJ/mol): 578.7 Oxidation States: 3 Lattice Structure: Orthorhombic Lattice Constant (Ãâ¦): 4.510 CAS Registry Number: 7440-55-3 Gallium Trivia: Galliums discover, Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran named the element after his home country France. The Latin word gallus means both Gaul which is an older name for France. It was believed he also named the element after himself because gallus also means rooster (or Le Coq in French). Lecoq later denied he named gallium after himself.The discovery of gallium filled a spot predicted by Mendeleevs periodic table. Gallium took the place of the placeholder element eka-aluminum.Gallium was first identified using spectroscopy by its distinct pair of violet spectral lines.Galliums melting point (302.93 K) is low enough to melt the metal in the palm of your hand.Gallium is the element with the highest range of temperatures for its liquid phase. The difference between galliums melting and boiling point is 2373 Ã °C.Gallium is one of five elements with a melting point near room temperature. The other four are mercury, cesium, rubidium and francium.Gallium expands as it freezes like water.Gall ium does not exist free in nature.Gallium is obtained as a byproduct in the production of zinc and aluminum.Most gallium produced today is used in electronics.Gallium nitride semiconductors are used the blue diode lasers of Blu-rayÃ¢â ¢ players.Gallium arsenide is used to produce ultra-brite blue LEDs.Liquid gallium is known for its ability to wet glass, porcelain and skin. Gallium forms a very reflective surface on glass making an excellent mirror.An amalgam of gallium, indium, tin is used in medical thermometers in place of the more traditional and toxic mercury thermometers.Gallium Beating Heart is one of the fun and easy chemistry demonstrations for chemistry students. Gallium Fast Facts Element Name: GalliumElement Symbol: GaAtomic Number: 31Group: Group 13 (Boron Group)Period: Period 4Appearance: Silver-blue metalDiscovery:Ã Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1875) Sources de Boisbaudran, Lecoq (1835Ã¢â¬â1965). CaractÃ ¨res chimiques et spectroscopiques dun nouveau mÃ ©tal, le gallium, dÃ ©couvert dans une blende de la mine de Pierrefitte, vallÃ ©e dArgelÃ ¨s (PyrÃ ©nÃ ©es). Comptes rendus. 81: 493.Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Shareholder approach to managerial responsibility was highlighted in Milton FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s New York Times article Ã¢â¬Å"The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase ProfitsÃ¢â¬ . In essence, that article states that the responsibility of a manager is solely to the shareholders; he or she must follow the shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ interests as long as it stays within legal and certain social parameters. In this essay, I will further explain FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments, address main counterpoints, and ultimately argue that FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusion is a correct and normative view of the moral responsibility from the perspective of management in a non-private company. The shareholder approach to managerial moral responsibility has a few main points that are necessary to address in explaining FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, especially in the context of distinguishing the approach from other arguments that have been suggested as alternative approaches. FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s first two arguments are similar in natureÃ¢â¬âthey both point out the lack of ownership of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s assets by the managers. In his article, Friedman writes: Ã¢â¬Å"The stockholders or the customers or the employees could separately spend their own money on the particular action if they wished to do so. The executive is exercising a distinct Ã¢â¬Ësocial responsibility,Ã¢â¬â¢ rather than serving as an agent of the stockholders or the customers or the employees, only if he spends the money in a different way than they would have spent it.Ã¢â¬ (Friedman 212) In other words,Show MoreRelatedCorporate Governance General Review1775 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesguide; describing the main purpose of modern governance which is guiding relations between different counterparties. That emphasizes directing function rather than monitoring function. The definitions of corporate governance always concentrate on shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ relations with their companies. 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Alternatively, the minority of organisations engaging in CSR with the altruistic concern for the stability ofRead MoreThe Agency Theory For The Best Interest Of The Shareholders1234 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Agency Theory: This theory attributes the control for the best interest of the shareholders,it was introduced by Demsetz and Alchian (1972 )and was further improved by Meckling and Jensen ( Heslinda and Benedict,2009). The agency is a contract between the principal which are shareholders and the agent which are the managers . Most of the literature on corporate governance finds its roots in agency theory the relationships normally occurs when the principal hires the agent to perform a serviceRead MoreFinancial Analysis : Financial Accounting Standards Board1606 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagescompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s projected cash flows, financial statements also play the important role in enhancing stewardship responsibilities that rest with managers. These requirements have connotations of financial statements being relevant to the targeted audience. In addition, financial statements are expected to be reliable from the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint. According to Ronen (2008), financial statements allow shareholders assess how well the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s managers performed over the most recent period as compared to previousRead MoreThe Maximisation Of Shareholder Value Essay1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlhalboni The maximisation of shareholder value is a corporate objective that has become increasingly popular since the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. Many companies explicitly state that maximising shareholder value is one of their key business objectives; an example of this is Coca-Cola, who state in their Coca-Cola Company Vision (2016) that Ã¢â¬Å"maximising long-term return to shareholdersÃ¢â¬ is one of their business goals. In this essay, I will consider the extent to which maximising shareholder value is a reasonable objective
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Isak Strand Many people do not know of Isak. He was once on the Swedish version of American idol. However he has an enormous amount of talent. If you would like to listen to him, he post most of his songs on youtube, and they are available for purchase on Itunes. I feel that Isak actually has meaning behind his songs. Songs that came from the heart. I feel that some artist donÃ¢â¬â¢t even know what they are singing about. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t have emotions behind their words and it is just some random songwriter giving them words to sing to make money. His first album is called You, Me, and Yes You too by Isak Strand and the resin brand. He has such relatable songs in this album. In Ã¢â¬Å"oh how I hate this townÃ¢â¬ he talks about the love that he lost in where he lives. He talks about all sorts of different things that every listener is sure to find something that they like. We will write a custom essay sample on Isak Strand Vs. Toe by Isak Strand or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I really like Ã¢â¬Å"Skinny BoyÃ¢â¬ , just has a cool vibe. In his newest album, called Isak Strand Vs. T.O.E. He has another group of great songs. Each of them has something great about it. They use many instruments. Lately the only instruments that they use in most songs are guitars and keyboards and drums. But you can hear all sorts of sounds in this album. My favorite is either Ã¢â¬Å"Save my SoulÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Feeling Nothing.Ã¢â¬ I encourage all of you to buy his songs. He is a starting artist and could use some followers!
Sunday, April 12, 2020
The Weight Of Real Wrestlers High School Wrestling has always been thought of as the hardest and most enduring sport that takes place in high school. Only the toughest Jocks try out, and the weak are quickly discarded. Young women showing school spirit come to watch as the arms of young men in spandex are mingled about. During matches, coaches yell and scream at their young apprentices while they desperately battle to pin their opponent of equal weight. But, how equally are the two enemies matched? How much weight did one person have to lose, and how fast did he have to do it to be able to wrestle in that weight class? Once the wrestler makes his weight does he really have any physical energy left to wrestle? Losing an extraordinary amount of weight in a short amount of time is dangerous and unhealthy, and should be regulated for the safety of the athletes. Coach James Derek Donoho is now in his third year of being head coach at Don Lugo High School. He says wrestling is a very dangerous contact sport that always has the risk of injuries, and people get hurt everyday. He believes it's a good experience for young men and he is glad he went through it when he was in high school. Physical injuries come with the turf, and every person knows it when they join wrestling or any other sport. It's the un-implied risks that are not seen until commitments are made, that are the most dangerous to young athletes. Donoho is pro losing weight and says its good to loose weight and move to a lighter weight class, because it's a little easier on the wrestler. It feels to them that they are wrestling someone lighter then they are. That is a tactical advantage, however people also move up to wrestle in higher weight levels to fill spots. That makes it unnecessary for teens to lose weight because they are already wrestling someone lighter then they are. We don't pressure our players to lose a lot of weight, says Donoho, they chose which weight class they want to wrestle in. If that's true, then there are a lot of young athletes who are willing to lose a tremendous amount of weight in a short amount of time just to make Varsity. Do people really put themselves in such danger to achieve the pride of being on a varsity team? Brandon Frescas, a third year wrestler on the team, says coaches just flat out ask us if we could get down to a certain weight by a certain time to fill spots. Sometimes it's moving up a weight class, sometimes it's losing a little weight, and sometimes it's a lot of weight. Losing 10 to 15 pounds in a week is a lot of weight to lose. 10 to 15 pounds in a week is an absurd amount of weight to lose. On T.V advertisements say their diet can help people lose 10 to 15 pounds in a month, but never does it say one week. 15 pounds is about the size of a medium dog. Could anyone imagine stuff about the size of a dog leaving ones body in only one week? Michael Nava, also a third year wrestler, says coach asked me what weight I thought I could get down to, and I told him 135 pounds. I weighed about 137 pounds and he asked me if he could count on me to get down to 130 pounds. I thought about it and told him yes because I didn't want to let him down. Pressure from the coaches exists and every pl ayer knows its there. Although the coaches won't admit it, Michael Nava says, it's dangerous if you have to lose a lot of weight. Losing an enormous amount of weight such as 10 to 15 pounds in one week seems impossible to an everyday person. But, according to the wrestlers it's only almost impossible. There is an entire process wrestlers go through and it's different depending upon how much weight needs to be lost. The secrets are passed down and taught to the younger wrestlers by the more experienced ones. The first thing taught is
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Freedom of Speech in China and Political Reform Introduction Freedom of speech is a human right that is very essential and entails the expression of ideas and opinions freely hence promoting peace and order in a country or even an institution as people feel represented and honored. It is through the expression of opinions that invention and innovation is nurtured and hence there is growth and development.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Freedom of Speech in China and Political Reform specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Freedom of speech enhances free flow of information and ideas hence promoting democracy, creativity and growth. Political reform on the other hand is a social and political movement that makes gradual changes in the society or country and therefore freedom of speech is necessary in the process of political reform. Freedom of speech is an essential basic human right and each and every individual is entitled to have it. It should however not be misused u nder any circumstance but used constructively to promote growth rather than rebellion. The introduction of political reform in China ought to be gradual just as the economic reforms so that it can be easily absorbed without interfering with the functioning and continuity of the state (Cuizon 1). Background Information China worked on the principles of a political thinker, Confucius, until the start of the twentieth century. He emphasized on the importance of ethics and morals in all undertakings rather than the use of force and violence to make things done. The importance of human rights like the freedom of speech was however not taken into consideration. Towards the end of the twentieth century, China became business oriented and there were lots of economic and political reforms under the rule of Deng. He believed that for a nation to progress and develop there had to be enlightened people and so he allowed for more open debate and discussions that would enhance exchange of ideas a nd opinions that lead to development. There was great freedom of speech, press and movement but this idea was not received well and some people thought that too much freedom was not necessary and that they should have gone back to the earlier days. This was because although the reforms had led to growth and development, it also brought about inflation leading to peaceful and even violent demonstrations as citizens demanded more democracy (Rana 2). Although the constitution of China has the provision of the freedom of speech, association, press and even demonstration, the freedom is not there in reality since the constitution forbids the undertaking of anything that is contrary to the interests of the states. The rights are not implemented unless a supplementary law is passed by the national legislature.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are therefore restrictions to hum an rights and people who are seen to express and advocate for freedom are punished and prosecuted for the offense of inciting others or trying to undermine the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s powers. Some face penalties like losing their jobs, detention and rebuke. Freedom of speech and press are vital concepts in attainment of political reform in China. This is because it enhances decision making in regard to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s politics through engaging the citizens in the current social and political affairs. The involvement of the citizens in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making is fundamental as it makes them feel represented and also prepare the citizens socially on all the changes that are bound to happen in their nation and hence avoid resistance as it could be the case when the changes would occur without their consent or knowledge. Political reform in China is triggered by the widespread corruption in the nation as there are many instances of abuse of public funds and resources for individ ual gains. Corruption is exacerbated by the fact that the citizens have got no powers and the state is in control of all the aspects involving the citizens for instance, it possesses power over the legislature, judicial and executive arms of the government, the press or media, colleges and universities and even markets. Democracy is therefore viewed as a solution to this problem and it can only be introduced through political reform. The idea of democracy is however received with a lot of controversies because in however much the leaders desire to eliminate the aspect of corruption, they have the fear of losing the monopoly power prevalent in the communist party. Even with the realization that something needs to be done, allowing for democracy, the Chinese leaders are still resistant on the need for change (Zhao 3). It is however evident that the process of establishing democracy in China has been slower that that of capitalism. This is because of the monopoly of power of the Chines e Communist Party and the lack of freedom of speech and press and independent government body. Although China is not a democracy, its view on democratic aspects is changing and there is the possibility of the adoption of democracy as a political system in future (Li Viii). There have been changes in the ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s political ideology due to the urge to have freedom of speech and democracy and as a result, there have been major political changes and developments for instance there has been the emergence of civil society as opposed to the MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s era where there was no chance for formation of any independent civil society.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Freedom of Speech in China and Political Reform specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There has been an increase in formation independent and legitimate civil organizations and associations that give the citizens a medium to air their opinions. The political reform has also led to improved national legal system and promotion of the rule of law. This is because the leaders in China have recognized the need to establish and promote a good legal system to compliment the growing market economy. This promotes democracy in the political system in China. Local autonomy and direct elections is another concept that was enhanced by political reform in China. Democracy was viewed as a stepping stone to political development and the citizens were allowed to make their leadership decisions by directly voting for or electing their leaders. This enhanced peace and order as the citizens felt comprehensively represented. Political transparency is another key aspect. The political reform emphasize on openness and transparency in all affairs of the government through involvement of the citizens. The government has the obligation to inform the citizens of the policies and regulations and all the government affairs affecting them comprehensively and at the right time to ensure that they are aware of the events taking place or those that are to take place and voice their opinions. The National Leading Group on Governmental Transparency promotes this by emphasizing openness in governmental affairs as a legal obligation of the government at al levels, adoption of a service commitment and responsibility investigating system, and establishment of a disaster management system. Due to consideration of the citizens in the government political affairs, there has been an improvement in public services provision as the government become service oriented. This has been achieved through simplification of the administrative examination and approval system and implementation of one stop shopping service model. Incorporation of public hearings and considerations in decision making is another positive factor brought about by political reform. This has made use of the public to ensure that the services offered by the government are in line to the needs of th e citizens hence satisfaction and contentment that promotes peace and order. Although the political reforms have been associated with major positive results, its main goal is to set up a modern system that promotes democratic governance in the nation and hence recognizing and protecting the citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights under all circumstances (Li 50). Freedom of speech and political reform in China are directly related and affect one another. When the citizens are given the freedom of speech, they are able to participate fully in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s development and hence contribute positively to the political reforms.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, the leaders may consider restricting the freedom of speech of the citizens so as to exercise monopoly and carry out activities the way they desire. This however cannot succeed as the citizens will be rebellious as they feel neglected. It is therefore advisable to allow democracy and freedom of speech to enhance the process of political reform. Conclusion Political reform is a positive step in any country when it follows the right direction and procedures. It should always aim at attaining political legitimacy and promoting social welfare and development. It should also cater for the needs of all citizens especially the marginalized and promote political, social and economic stability in the nation. Cuizon, Gwendolyn. Ã¢â¬Å"What is Freedom of Speech?: Importance of Free Speech.Ã¢â¬ Suite 101.com. 2009, March 6. Web. Li, Cheng. Chinas Changing Political Landscape: Prospects for Democracy. Washington D.C: Brookings Institution Press, 2008. Rana, Mitter. Ã¢â¬Å"A Short History of Free Speech in China: New Internationalist.Ã¢â¬ FindArticles.com, 2010. Web. Zhao, Suisheng. Debating Political Reform in China: Rule of Law vs. Democratization. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2006.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Produce a report on the marketing of a consumer product of your choice utilizing some of the techniques discussed on your course - Essay Example In fact, Nokia Smartphones have pushed the company out of losses and set it on a path of reclamation and growth (Garside, 2013). 2. Key Market Segments for Nokia Lumia and Size of MarketÃ 2.1 Customer Segments Targeted Nokia smartphones are now available for many different customer segments as shown below: Lumia 920 and Lumia 820 These phones are based on the Windows 8 platform, are 4G enabled, and target customers who can purchase higher end products and who desire latest technology and a large variety of apps (Aulakh, 2013). Lumia 720 and Lumia 520 These smartphones target the price sensitive customer segment. These are priced at low and mid-range and provide almost similar hardware as its sophisticated higher end sets. However, the services provided are lesser. The concept behind these phones is to target customers who cannot afford high end phones but who still need cell phones for net connectivity and functional utility (Spence, 2013). Nokia Lumia 700 and 800 These are the lo w range of smartphones that were initially launched to create interest and awareness among the new customers (Spence, 2013). It can therefore be observed that Nokia Smartphones cover nearly all the customer segments with the variety of products that they have in the market. 2.2 Market Size and Growth The market for the smartphones is in the stage of rapid growth as can be seen from the growth statistics for the last year. In the second quarter of the year 2012, the mobile market grew at the rate of 1% with 406.0 million units of mobiles being shipped during the quarter (IDC Press Release, 2012). However, the smartphones market grew at a much higher rate of 42.1% in 2012 with 153.9 millionÃ units being shipped worldwide (IDC Press Release, 2012). The main competitors in the smartphone market are Samsung and Apple. These two players have captured diverse market segments ranging from low priced to high priced. Samsung focuses on a diverse strategy where it introduces smartphones for a variety of customer segments so that it covers all sections of the market. On the other hand, Apple targets only the high end customer segment with sophisticated and highly priced smartphones. Smartphones growth markets largely consist of the European countries as well as emerging economies of Asia and Latin America. There is a continuous rise in the demand of smartphones in countries like India and China which provide a huge market due to their large populations. However, in spite of the large growth and expected progression of the smartphone market, Nokia has fallen behind the two main competitors Ã¢â¬â Samsung and Apple. The reason is largely attributed to the introduction of the Microsoft Windows Phone 8 that prevented existing uses of Nokia Lumia to upgrade to the new operating system (Garside, 2013). This restriction led to a decline in the sales of the Nokia Lumia though it is expected that the upgradation will eventually happen for the existing users. Like Samsung, Noki a also follows the strategy of penetrating diverse customer segments and has developed smartphones of varying prices and sophistication. The following graph shows the BCG matrix for smartphone market and the market position of Nokia: Figure 1: BCG Matrix for Smartphone Market and Market Position of Nokia Lumia 3. Future Trends in Smart Phone Market
Friday, February 7, 2020
Marketing paper - Essay Example r constrÃ °ints - technicÃ °l (economic) Ã °nd ethicÃ °l (sociÃ °l) - creÃ °te the trÃ °nsÃ °ctions or flows which resolve mÃ °rket sepÃ °rÃ °tions Ã °nd result in exchÃ °nge Ã °nd consumption (BÃ °rtles). My concept of mÃ °rketing is close to the definition by CIM thÃ °t looks not only Ã °t identifying customer needs, but Ã °lso sÃ °tisfying them (short-term) Ã °nd Ã °nticipÃ °ting them in the future (long-term retention). In its most generic form, I define mÃ °rketing Ã °s mÃ °rketing seen Ã °s relÃ °tionships, networks Ã °nd interÃ °ction or mÃ °rketing bÃ °sed on interÃ °ction within Ã ° network of relÃ °tionships. In the broÃ °dest sense of mÃ °rketing, Ã °ll mÃ °nÃ °gement, the whole society, Ã °nd even life itself, form networks of relÃ °tionships within which we interÃ °ct in our roles of business executives, employees, consumers, citizens Ã °nd humÃ °n beings. CollÃ °borÃ °tion. The core contribution from mÃ °rketing is its emphÃ °sis on collÃ °borÃ °tion. In Ã ° nÃ °rrow sense it comprises the collÃ °borÃ °tion between customer Ã °nd supplier. This hÃ °s Ã °lwÃ °ys been Ã ° prÃ °cticÃ °l necessity for services Ã °nd for the development, production, mÃ °rketing Ã °nd purchÃ °sing of complex products in business mÃ °rketing. Its prÃ °ctice, however, is often unprofessionÃ °l Ã °nd guided by legÃ °l-bureÃ °ucrÃ °tic vÃ °lues Ã °nd lÃ °ck of empÃ °thy. Its introduction in theory Ã °nd educÃ °tion is long overdue. TodÃ °y, severÃ °l sources independent of relÃ °tionship mÃ °rketing stress collÃ °borÃ °tion. CollÃ °borÃ °tion is the very reÃ °son for forming Ã °n orgÃ °nizÃ °tion; you collÃ °borÃ °te inside Ã °nd compete outside. In totÃ °l relÃ °tionship mÃ °rketing you both collÃ °borÃ °te Ã °nd compete, inside Ã °s well Ã °s outside the orgÃ °nizÃ °tion. Long relÃ °tionships. Ã series of studies clÃ °im thÃ °t the longer the relÃ °tionship with Ã ° customer, the higher the profit will be. This is primÃ °rily due to two effects of customer loyÃ °lty: reduced mÃ °rketing costs when fewer customers defect; Ã °nd increÃ °sed Ã¢â¬Ëcustomer shÃ °reÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËshÃ °re of